Kidney stones in Albanian children


  • Diamant SHTIZA University of Medicine, Tirana, Albania
  • Enkelejda Shkurti University of Medicine, Tirana, Albania


Abdominal ultrasonography, Gross hematuria, Kidney stones, Metabolic disorders


Urolithiasis is already one of the oldest, even in pediatric patients. The occurrence of kidney stones is estimated to be 1:20.000 children/year. The medium age of onset is between 5-7 years. Our study aimed to see the characteristic features, predisposing factors, and therapeutic procedures for Kidney stones in children, as well as metabolic abnormalities, especially hypercalciuria. In a retrospective study, we involved 216 patients (46% of them with a family history of kidney stones) in 8 years (from 2010-2018). All patients underwent abdominal ultrasonography and laboratory examination. Male/female ratio was 2.17:1. Diagnostic medium age was 6.44 years. The most frequent symptoms were: back pain at 33.3%, abdominal pain at 19.4%, gross hematuria at 19.4%, microhematuria at 14%, urinary retention at 9.7%, dysuria at 8.3%, vomiting at 11.1%, growth retardation in 4.2%, hypertension in 1.4%, the spontaneous passage of renal calculi in 5.5%. 4.2% of patients were asymptomatic. We found infectious stones in 47.2% of cases. The chemical composition of the stone was studied only in 51% of cases, from which 56% appeared to be calcium oxalate and phosphate stones. We found metabolic abnormalities in 50% of patients. Urolithiasis is a common disease among Albanian children. 50% of patients had metabolic disorders. Calcium-oxalate and calcium-phosphate represent the most frequent types of calculi. Hypercalciuria is the most essential metabolic disorder. Hypocitraturia is the risk factor for calcium urolithiasis. We recommend estimating every child with a stone for metabolic screening.




How to Cite

SHTIZA, D. ., & Shkurti, E. . (2023). Kidney stones in Albanian children . European Journal of Medicine and Natural Sciences, 6(2), 17–27. Retrieved from