Albania in the last decade of the Ottoman occupation according to French diplomacy during the years 1901 – 1911


  • Lufi Simon Assoc. Prof. Dr. , Luigj Gurakuqi University of Shkodër
  • Marsel Nilaj PhD, Luigj Gurakuqi University of Shkodër



French diplomacy, Albania, Ottoman Empire, Triple Alliance, Central Bloc.


France in the first decade of the twentieth century, will be very active in European and Balkan events. At the same time, French diplomatic documents reflect a complete picture of Albania in the first decade of the twentieth century, in the context of the occupation of the Ottoman Empire. The interests that Austria and Italy have in particular are analyzed by the side of a state that was in the opposing camp, the Triple Alliance camp. But in the French documentation it is clear that one of the most delicate conflicts between Austria and Italy was the influence that each of these two countries of the Central Bloc sought to influence the Albanian territory. Albania was seen as a springboard to the southern Balkans and the only thing that prevented Austria and Italy from entering the conflict was the preservation of Albania's status quo and the influence of Germany seeking at all costs to keep the Central Bloc in cohesion. France through its diplomacy sought to damage the Central Bloc, to stimulate the connection of new alliances in Europe, wanting to promote rapprochement between Italy and Russia, but the latter's high interests in the Balkans, made Russia create for itself agreement with Austria, really worrying France. Interesting is the fact of diplomatic treatment by France of the situation in the Balkans and the opinion that French diplomats have about Albanians. Being more pro-Slavic in the diplomatic side, she sees critically how the Austrians were using the Albanians to oppose the Balkan peoples, mainly the Serbs. On the other hand, French diplomats criticize the Ottoman attitude, which maintained a mild attitude towards Albanians, explaining it with the fear that the Sultan himself has, given that part of his guard was Albanian. Thanks to this period and the French diplomacy which does not have a direct involvement in the Albanian issue, we see with great interest not only a panorama of the Albanian situation but also of the hidden European interests, which emerge through the influence on the Albanian territory as a strategic position.




How to Cite

Simon, L., & Nilaj, M. (2022). Albania in the last decade of the Ottoman occupation according to French diplomacy during the years 1901 – 1911. European Journal of Social Science Education and Research, 9(2s), 1–18.