The Challenges of Critical Thinking in the Era of Artificial Intelligence


  • Robert Aaron Kenedy Department of Sociology, 238 McLaughlin College, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada


Critical thinking, artificial intelligence, critical thinking pedagogy, active learning, effective thinking.


I argue that critical thinking is based on active learning, engaged independent thinking, and examining all information including recently impactful ChatGPT and other AI sources. Thoughtfully questioning what is being learned as well as critically and creatively analyzing and evaluating information such as AI is necessary to gain a deeper understanding as an effective thinker. Critical thinking pedagogy should also promote “portability” and citizenship, including information-based online multimedia literacy such as AI, as well as employment and professional information. This means becoming a critical thinker inside and outside the classroom and take what is learned into our personal, public, and professional lives. The article begins with an examination of four discrepancies or issues related to critical thinking in higher education. The critical thinking literature and Kenedy’s Model of Cyclical Critical Thinking will then be considered. This will be followed by the discussion and summary regarding suggested guidelines for critically evaluating AI. Finally, conclusions regarding further work including pedagogical models for teaching critical thinking in the era of AI and other future work are considered.




How to Cite

The Challenges of Critical Thinking in the Era of Artificial Intelligence. (2023). European Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 9(1), 19-38.